-How Zinc Supplementation Helps Battling The Common Cold
Winter is coming. That means your kids and family might have a little more episodes of coughing, sneezing, congestion or fevers. The common trace element ZINC could be the natural answer as a recent meta-analysis demonstrated that zinc supplementation can reduce the duration and severity of a cold, if it’s started early on1.
Since 1984, scientists have been designing clinical trials in the hope to investigate the efficacy of Zinc in common cold management. The majority of studies have revealed zinc’s ability to relieve cold symptoms as well as shorten cold duration. For instance, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study carried out in Cleveland Clinic recruited 100 adults who developed symptoms of the common cold within 24 hours2. Half of the subjects received zinc lozenges, while the other half received similar lozenges without zinc. The zinc group had significantly fewer days with coughing, headache, nasal congestion and sore throat. In another Iranian study in children 1-7 years with the common cold, the treatment group (zinc) showed a significant decrease in the mean duration of rhinorrhea, cough, nasal obstruction, sneezing and fever3. Both studies showed a beneficial effect of using zinc for treating the common cold, particularly when zinc is started within the first 24 hours of the onset of symptoms.
Aside from symptom relief, how to prevent kids from getting cold is also a universal concern for parents. One prevention trial in 2009 addressed the effect of zinc supplementation in school-aged children over five fall/winter months4. Supplemented with 10mg daily zinc, the study group reported merely 1.73 episodes of common cold per child in comparison to 3.15 cold episodes per child among the placebo group. The study group also had 60% fewer missing days from school. Zinc supplementation substantially reduced the incidence of antibiotic uses for bacterial infections.
Overall, taking zinc supplements can boost immune functions as well as relieve the common cold (but need to be started soon after the onset of symptoms). If you are looking for a potent while delicious zinc product for the entire family, try our ZINC GUMMIES which offers 10mg of Zinc (from Zinc Citrate with a great absorption rate). It has absolutely no typical zinc bad taste and does not cause adverse effects like nausea.
1. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; (2): CD001364.
2. Mossad SB, MackninM, MedendorpS. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;125(2):81-8.
3. Parsa Yousefichaijan, Fatemeh Dorreh, Mahdyieh Naziri. The Effect of Zinc Sulfate on Duration of Common Cold Symptoms in Children. J. Biol. Today’s World. 2017 Oct; 6 (10): 186-190.
4. Vakili R, Vahedian M, Khodaei GH, Mahmoudi M. Effects of zinc supplementation in occurrence and duration of common cold in school aged children during cold season: a double blind placebo-controlled trial. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 2009;19(4):376-80.
International Pharmacy Graduate and Natural Health Practitioner
Zinc is a trace element that is necessary for a healthy immune system. A lack of zinc can make a person more susceptible to disease and illness.
Top Health Benefits of Zinc:
1. Increases immunity and fights colds and flu.
Multiple researches have demonstrated that zinc supplementation can reduce the duration and severity of a cold, if it’s started early on1. A randomized double‐blind, placebo‐controlled efficacy trial in 200 school-aged children showed that 10mg zinc supplementation per day was associated with significant decrease of the frequency of colds, and reduction in the duration and severity of the symptoms of common cold2.
2. Acts as a powerful antioxidant that fights against harmful free radicals.
3. Aids in nutrient absorption and digestion.
Zinc affects protein synthesis and is required by the body to use amino acids from foods. It’s also involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates from foods, which are one of the main sources of energy for the body. For this reason, zinc deficiency can cause low energy levels and contribute to adrenal or chronic fatigue, whereas consuming enough zinc benefits ongoing energy and healthy metabolism.
4. Helps with muscle growth and repair.
Zinc plays a crucial role in cell division and cell growth, so zinc benefits muscle repairment and growth by making it possible for the body to heal itself and maintain strength in the muscular and skeletal systems.
Say Hi to the brand new allKiDz® Zinc Gummies!
As parents ourselves, we understand you are looking for immune-boosting solutions for your precious ones during this winter. We are thrilled to announce that we have crafted a delicious fruity gummy formula that features higher Zinc potency – 10mg of Zinc per gummy in the superior Zinc Citrate form. This zinc content is higher than most of the other kids’ products on the market. It is also vegetarian/vegan-friendly as we only select plant-based ingredients with no animal gelatin. Of course, as always, it has no artificial flavours, colours, sweeteners, common allergens (gluten, for example) or preservatives. allKiDz® Zinc Gummies can be a simple yet powerful way to boost immune functions for your kids and your entire family.
1. Goutham Rao, MD; Kate Rowland, MD. Department of Family Medicine, The University of Chicago. Zinc for the common cold—not if, but when. The Journal of Family Practice. Vol 60, No 11. November 2011.
2. Rahim V. et al., Effects of Zinc Supplementation in Occurrence and Duration of Common Cold in School Aged Children during Cold Season: a Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. Iran J Pediatr. Dec 2009; Vol 19 (No 4), Pp:376-380
Holistic Nutritionist (Certified Nutritional Practitioner)
Maintaining and improving the health of your kids, naturally has always been a dream of parents. However, most of the Multivitamin formulas on the market claimed to be “natural”, still contain potentially harmful ingredients such as sugar, synthetic sweeteners, synthetic preservatives, food dies or fillers.
Sugar has been a growing concern in the past decade. Over the years we have received many requests from parents, intending to invest in their kid’s diet and healthy lifestyle hoping to find healthier foods, drinks and supplements on the market. In our menus today, sugar is found in many forms and under so many different names. Some of them are cane sugar, cane juice crystals, beet sugar, rice syrup, high fructose corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, galactose, maltose, lactose, sucrose and more…
How Can Sugar Impact Your Child’s Health
Most of us have witnessed how having added sugar in our daily menu can lead to different health problems, such as higher blood pressure, inflammation, weight gain, diabetes and more…The health challenges of our kids after having added sugar regularly may start with behaviour, or digestive problems, tooth decay, malnutrition, unexplained aches and pains, psychological imbalances and obesity. According to the statement made by the British Journal of Sports Medicine, sugar is also an addictive substance. Withdrawal symptoms for sugar addiction can include mood changes, such as irritability, and physical symptoms such as tremors, or changes in activity level such as your child becoming more overactive or lethargic than usual. All the hidden risks make it clear that added sugar is better to be avoided.
Based on all the negative feedback on the use of sugar we decided to abandon added sugar in our new Multi Gummy Bears Vegetarian. To keep the same tasty flavour, we switched to one of the safest sugar substitutes known up to date on the market, called Erythritol. While erythritol tastes similar to sugar it is known to be free of the side effects that added sugar has. It contains much fewer calories and does not feed bacteria in the mouth (which helps prevent dental caries). Erythritol is well-tolerated by our bodies therefore not causing digestive issues (like gas).
According to Dr. Axe: “…As of 1997, erythritol has the status of generally recognized as safe by the FDA. The food industry and consumers love it because it has a similar sweet taste as sugar, but it’s noncaloric and does not raise blood sugar levels…”
allKiDz® Multi Gummy Bears Vegetarian
Introducing delicious Juicy gummy bears with carefully-selected 13 essential vitamins and minerals with no added sugar, allKiDz® Multi Gummy Bears Vegetarian features plant-based ingredients and a good amount of dietary fiber – 0.9g of natural fiber per gummy!
As we know many kids don’t like to eat their veggies and, in many cases, this will mean that they are not getting enough fiber in their diet. In general, fiber helps make us full and keeps things moving in the digestive tract. A diet that includes good sources of fiber may help to prevent or relieve constipation and it’s a very important factor in the body’s detoxification process. This fiber content makes it stand out among other kids’ vitamins on the market.
For today’s parent it’s easy to help their kids to stay healthy, energetic and well-nourished even if they are picky eaters since having a vitamin formula like allKiDz® Multi Gummy Bears Vegetarian is within reach, because they are delicious, and kids love them! This is definitely a new age multivitamin formula that doesn’t contain added sugar and is free of artificial sweeteners, high fructose corn syrup, gluten, animal gelatin, artificial flavors, artificial colors or preservatives.
While our intention is to provide the best care and nutrition for your child, we strongly suggest that as it is with every natural supplement, please remember to consult with your child’s pediatrician or a Medical Doctor of your choice for the best supplement option and the recommended daily dose for your kids prior to using any of the suggestions or products in this article!
To make informed decisions about Multi Gummy Bears Vegetarian, also keep in mind that:
• Like other supplements, keep the bottle out of your kids’ reach, so that they don’t take more than the recommended amount and get an overdose of vitamins, especially since they taste like candy;
• Supplements aren’t intended to substitute for food, and they are not meant to be used as a meal replacement;
• If your child has an allergy to any of the ingredients in this product, please avoid the use of it.
1. How to spot — and avoid — added sugar. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/how-to-spot-and-avoid-added-sugar
2. Toddlers Are Eating More Sugar Than What’s Recommended for Some Adults
3. Too Much Sugar Can Cause Health Problems in Kids. By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD https://www.verywellfamily.com/is-too-much-sugar-harmful-to-kids-22337
4. What Is Erythritol? WebMD, https://www.webmd.com/diet/what-is-erythritol#1
5. Effects of Sweeteners on the Gut Microbiota: A Review of Experimental Studies and Clinical Trials. Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Maria Jose Sáez-Lara, Angel Gil Advances in Nutrition, Volume 10, Issue suppl_1, January 2019, Pages S31–S48
Protect and nurture the health of your kids with a good quality Probiotic
Holistic Nutritionist (Certified Nutritional Practitioner)
Probiotics may seem new to the food and supplement industry, but they have been with us from our first breath. During a delivery through the birth canal, a newborn picks up the bacteria Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli from his/her mother. These good bacteria are not transmitted when a Cesarean section is performed and have been shown to be the reason why some infants born by C-section have allergies, less than optimal immune systems, and lower levels of gut microflora.
The root of the word probiotic comes from the Greek word pro, meaning “promoting,” and biotic, meaning “life.” The discovery of probiotics came about in the early 20th century, when Elie Metchnikoff, known as the “father of probiotics,” had observed that rural dwellers in Bulgaria lived to very old ages despite extreme poverty and harsh climate. He theorized that health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with host-friendly bacteria found in sour milk. Since then, research has continued to support his findings along with suggesting even more benefits.
Many studies have been done on Probiotics reporting great results, according to Harvard Medical School, “Microbes in the lower intestinal tract help us digest food, fight harmful bacteria, and regulate the immune system. But sometimes an imbalance of microbes occurs, leading to diarrhea and other health problems. When the gut becomes unbalanced with unhealthy levels of certain bacteria, probiotics can help restore the balance. They’ve been shown to secrete protective substances, which may turn on the immune system and prevent pathogens from taking hold and creating major disease.”
Probiotics are beneficial bacterial strains that can be found in a number of sources – but two, in particular, stand out thanks to their popularity: yogurt and probiotic supplements. Both help to augment your body’s existing healthy bacteria population, and adding either to your daily routine is better than nothing. However, which is more effective when it comes to introducing a broad range of probiotics to your body?
Probiotic Supplement or Yogurt
While yogurt may help provide some level of digestive support and can be a delicious addition to any diet, it simply can’t compete with the best probiotic supplements for children. There are several factors that cause this dairy product to come up short in delivering both high numbers of probiotics and the right probiotic strains to benefit your digestive tract. While some yogurts are probiotic-rich, many yogurts on the market have no active probiotic strains at all. Many of the pasteurization and sterilization processes that commercially-available yogurt is subjected to could kill all the live microorganisms that otherwise naturally occur in yogurt. Even when yogurt does have live probiotics, the particular type of starter culture used to produce the yogurt can have a huge effect on how many active probiotic strains survive until you take that first bite. A study conducted by researchers at California Polytechnic State University found that the number of viable probiotic strains in different yogurts can be reduced exponentially if certain starter cultures are used.
How is our probiotic supplement different from other probiotics on the market?
Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” Worldwide, there are numerous strains of probiotics used in dietary supplements and foods, but most are unstable at room temperature and need to be freeze-dried or encapsulated via special processes to remain viable during manufacturing, storage, and exposure to stomach acid and bile. Consequently, for most probiotics, only a very small percentage of the starting material is actually viable at the end of shelf life. Bacillus coagulans is a notable exception which, due to its sporulated form, survives without special handling and proliferates in the gastrointestinal environment.
allKiDz® Probiotic Gummies is a pediatrician favorite formula as it helps to support your child’s digestive, immune systems and tummy aches using Bacillus coagulans and it’s a delicious yogurt flavored chewable gummy, while at the same time is free of gluten, wheat, yeast, eggs, fish, lactose, mustard, peanuts, sesame, shellfish, soy, tree nuts, preservatives, artificial flavors, colors or sweeteners.
Probiotics for kids are one of the best ways to make sure your child has a balanced digestive and immune systems. Regular dosage of probiotics helps prevent and reduce the risks of many health concerns that parents face. If you’re looking for ways to help your kid’s current problems, such as diarrhea and/or constipation, intestinal gas, respiratory tract infection or boosting the immune system, allKiDz® Probiotic Gummies may be helpful.
As it is with every natural supplement, please, remember to consult with your child’s pediatrician for the best probiotic option for your kids, prior to using any of the suggestions or products, discussed within this article.
While probiotics can be very helpful with many health symptoms and concerns, caution needs to be taken by everyone who chooses to take probiotic supplements:
• The safety of supplements in pregnant women, nursing mothers, and those with medical conditions or who are taking medications has not been established.
• B. coagulans may interfere with antibiotics and immunosuppressant medications. Discuss your use of these drugs with your doctor before taking this supplement.
• Be aware that probiotics of all kinds may trigger allergic reactions.
Dr. Juliana Rosario Yeung
ND, BScAgr, BSc
Vitamin D is an essential nutrient that has major roles in a developing baby. A major deficiency in vitamin D can lead to rickets, a condition where bones are weak and soft, causing development delays to skeletal deformities.
Babies need 400 IU per day of vitamin D. This dosage starts from the day they are born. Vitamin D comes from three sources: sunlight, food and supplementation.
Everybody naturally makes vitamin D in the skin when exposed to sunlight. In the northern latitudes, due to seasonality and location, the amount of sunlight available may lead to suboptimal quantities. Prolonged exposure to sunlight also carries the risk of sunburn and skin cancer. Individuals with darker skin tone need more exposure to get adequate vitamin D amounts.
For a baby, food sources are breastmilk and/or formula. Breast milk naturally contains vitamin D from mama, but it is unlikely to meet a baby’s needs. Formula has vitamin D, but caretakers need to make sure baby drinks the right amount of formula to reach the recommended 400 IU of vitamin D per day.
Baby vitamin D products have a unique dosing and format than ones for adults. Most baby products are dosed at 400IU per drop in a liquid format to match babies’ daily requirements and swallowing abilities.
You can find this vitamin in a D2 or a D3 form. D2 is found in plants while most D3 is found in animals. For that reason, vegetarians and vegans take D2. D2 is unfortunately less effective at improving vitamin D status in the human body and it may be more sensitive to environmental changes such as humidity and temperature.
allKiDz® has come up with the solution: their new Vegan Vitamin D3 uses lichen, a natural vegan source, in the right form, with the convenience of a dropper with every bottle.
Did you know? Lichens are well known to be indicators of air pollution. Due to this, some species have since been extinct. Any extracts from lichens are therefore minimal in impurities.
allKiDz® all-new Vegan Vitamin D3 Drops is a great first supplement for your baby. It is in the right form, dose, with no artificial flavours, colours or sweeteners. It has no dairy, eggs, fish, lactose, mustard, peanuts, sesame, shellfish, soy, sugar, sunflower, sulphites, tree nuts, wheat, yeast or preservatives. It is also gluten-free. Dispensing the appropriate amount with the included dropper has never been quicker and easier.
This post is meant for informational and educational purposes only. The contents are not intended to substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please consult your healthcare professional for personalized medical advice.
Nair, R., & Maseeh, A. (2012). Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin. Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics, 3(2), 118–126. doi:10.4103/0976-500X.95506
Nash T.H., Gries C. (1991) Lichens as Indicators of Air Pollution. In: Air Pollution. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 4 / 4C. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-47343-5_1
International Pharmacy Graduate and Natural Health Practitioner
The black elderberry plant is a deciduous shrub found mostly in North America and Europe. Most of the scientific research on the medicinal benefits of the plant has been conducted on the European species, Sambucus nigra. The plant produces white flowers that are used for both health and flavor applications and dark purple-black berries that are packed with phytonutrients. Elderberries have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat everything from skin disorders to colds and flus. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, even referred to elderberry as “nature’s medicine chest”.
Elderberry is an easy, safe and tasty way to boost children’s health. Elderberry has been proven to be a natural, reliable treatment for common illnesses such as the cold and flu (influenza). Studies have shown that concentrated, membrane filtered elderberry extract (ElderCraft®) is active against viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory symptoms, and can significantly shorten the duration of symptoms (fever, cough, sore throat, congestion), reducing the severity of colds and flu significantly.
Elderberry is thought to deactivate the glycoprotein spikes (haemagglutinin) on the surface of viruses. This prevents the virus from attaching itself to the cell membrane and makes it impossible for the virus to enter the cell. In addition, packed with substances (anthocyanins, Vitamin C etc.) that contain powerful healing abilities, elderberry has also been shown to elevate immunity by increasing the production of vital proteins in immune cells.
Overall, elderberry provides potent protection, a natural tool for keeping children functioning at their best. And parents, elderberry is not just for kids! Your own immune system is also critical because chances are, your little ones are bringing it all home with them.
Would Elderberry Inhibit Coronaviruses?
Elderberry has been shown to inhibit multiple kinds of common cold and flu-like viruses because it sticks to the outside of the virus and makes it somewhat harder for it to replicate. It doesn’t destroy it; however, it may cut down your recovery time by 50%.
Although there is yet no published study on the effect of elderberry against the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), there is an in vitro study posted in a veterinary journal that shows that it specifically inhibits chicken coronavirus. Just in case, it would still be helpful to stock some elderberry on the side if you need an extra boost in immunity.
allKiDz® Anti-cold Liquid features ElderCraft® – an organic, standardized European black elderberry extract that has been clinically proven to relieve cold & flu symptoms. The unique membrane filtration technique ensures no chemical solvent has been employed in the extraction process, while enriches immune-boosting natural flavonoids (anthocyanin), minerals (Zinc) and vitamins (Vitamin C etc.).
Krawitz et al. Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:16
Chen et al. Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication. BMC Veterinary Research 2014, 10:24
International Pharmacy Graduate and Natural Health Practitioner
Common cold, Flu, and Coronaviruses are all respiratory illnesses; however, they are caused by different viruses. Because these three types of illnesses have similar symptoms, it can be difficult to tell the difference based on the symptoms alone. In general, flu is worse than the common cold, and the symptoms are more intense.
On the other hand, a coronavirus is a common virus that causes an infection in your nose, sinuses, or upper throat. Most coronaviruses are not dangerous.
In early 2020, following a December 2019 outbreak in China, the World Health Organization identified a new type of coronavirus called 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV).
All three diseases can spread through the coughing and sneezing of an infected person, by touching an infected person’s hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched.
How To Spot the Difference?
Common Cold Symptoms:
- runny or stuffy nose
- sore throat
- headache or body aches
- mild tiredness
- dry, hacking cough
- moderate to high fever (although not everyone with the flu will run a fever)
- sore throat
- shaking chills
- severe muscle or body aches
- stuffy and runny nose
- severe fatigue that may last up to two weeks
- nausea and vomiting, as well as diarrhea (most common in children)
- runny nose
- sore throat
To find out whether your cold was caused by a coronavirus, you could get lab tests done, which can include nose and throat cultures and blood work. The test results do not change how you will treat your symptoms, which typically go away in a few days.
But if a coronavirus infection spreads to the lower respiratory tract (your windpipe and your lungs), it can cause pneumonia, especially in children, older people, people with heart disease, or people with weakened immune systems.
How to Avoid a Common Cold, Flu, or Coronavirus?
- Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water or with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer
- Keep your hands and fingers away from your eyes, nose, and mouth
- Avoid close contact with people who are infected
How to Treat a Common Cold, Flu, or Coronavirus?
- Get plenty of rest
- Drink fluids
- A humidifier or steamy shower can also help ease a sore and scratchy throat
Carotenoids are vital to a child’s health providing antioxidant properties to aid their growth. Lutein is a dietary carotenoid found in yellow, orange and red fruits and vegetables as well as leafy green vegetables. Lutein has been known for its strong supportive role in eye health, especially in decreasing the risk of age-related eye diseases. The presence of lutein in breastmilk and fetal retina (an eye structure) has also suggested lutein’s potential critical role in infants/children population.
Lutein (from the Latin word luteus, meaning “yellow”) is a yellow pigment that has the ability to showcase various colours. It is one of the 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids, and is referred to as ‘macular pigment’. A high amount of macular pigment is important to protect and prevent eye related damage in children and the elderly. It acts by filtering the damaging blue wavelengths of light (400 nm – 480 nm) to protect the photoreceptors in the retina. For example when your child is consumed with technology for long durations this radiates damaging blue wavelengths. A high amount of macular pigment acts as a barrier for the eye to protect and deflect these lights from harming the retina.
The need for obtaining adequate amounts of lutein is critical in today’s society due to the dramatic increase in electronic devices and technological uses in everyday scenarios (televisions, phones, tablets, computers). The usage by children in today’s age is concerning, according to the Vision Council, “Nearly one in four kids spend more than three hours a day using digital devices and more than twenty percent of parents are very concerned about their children’s screen time”. As children’s eyes are vulnerable to blue light damage, lutein supplementation could help maintain visual function and performance by filtering blue light and protect photosensitive cells in their eyes.
Interestingly, recent preliminary studies have also found lutein to be the predominant carotenoid in the brain of infants. Lutein has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and may protect the brain from free radical damage.
The human body cannot naturally create lutein so it must be consumed through dietary sources. Good sources of lutein include corn, spinach, broccoli, kale, and egg yolk. However, considering the relatively low consumption of vegetables in children, the average intakes of dietary lutein are far less than the amount recommended.
The newly introduced allKiDz® Multivitamins Plus with Lutein provides a natural, refreshing and delicious way to fill the nutritional gap! Along with the 13 essential vitamins and minerals, it offers lutein derived from the marigold-flower in the unesterified (“free”) form. This “free” form is found in majority of the food consumed in the human diet, and is more readily absorbed into the bloodstream and utilized by various organs allowing your child’s body to benefit the most from this form.
Visit your local retailers to try a sample today and allow your children to lead their lives with healthy minds, healthy bodies and healthy eyesight.
- Snodderly, D. M., Brown, P. K., Delori, F. C. & Auran, J. D. The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984)
- Johnson, E. J., Maras, J. E., Rasmussen, H. M. & Tucker, K. L. Intake of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Differ with Age, Sex, and Ethnicity. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 110, 1357–1362 (2010)
- Pérez-Gálvez, A. & Mínguez-Mosquera, M. I. Esterification of xanthophylls and its effect on chemical behavior and bioavailability of carotenoids in the human. Nutr. Res. 25, 631–640 (2005).